Lerab Ling, 24 September 2014
Orgyen Tobgyal Rinpoche gave this teaching on the morning of 24 September 2014, at the end of the annual Chime Phakma Nyingtik drupchen in Lerab Ling. It belongs to a series of teachings Rinpoche has been giving about how best to preserve and spread the Buddhadharma, and echos the 1 August 1999 teaching he gave, also in Lerab Ling. On this occasion, Rinpoche explains why it is so important to keep detailed records of everything that happens here at Lerab Ling, and in all Dharma centres.
Writing a Chöjung—Record and Authenticate
“You should now recite the mantra slowly while remaining undistracted from the visualization, and listen to what I have to say.” There is an appendix to the main drupchen texts called the Tongtun, detailing the specific activities required during a drupchen, such as a daily teaching. It says that the Vajra King—in this case Neten Chokling Rinpoche who presided as the Vajra Master—or the Vajra Regent—his representative, Orgyen Tobgyal Rinpoche—must address the assembly who have gathered for the drupchen, beginning with these words. (The text is the bla ma’i thugs sgrub rnam pa gnyis dang phur pa spyi khyab kyi tshogs sgrub skabs nyer mkho’i gtong thun rdo rje rgyu mang, and is found in thugs sgrub bar chad kun sel gyi sgrub chen skabs kyi 'don cha, p.775 l.1-2)
The other day I mentioned that when many people gather for a drupchen practice, it is important that those who know the benefits of large group practice enlighten those who don’t. When the knowledgeable explain, the ignorant learn. Once everyone taking part knows the key points of kyerim and dzogrim, the practice will be sound.
Let’s continue from yesterday, when I spoke about Lerab Ling and mentioned the ‘outer supports’ which are the temple, the monastic Sangha and the representations of the Three Jewels that are in the temple.
The teachings of the three vehicles spread to different countries and places for specific reasons, they can’t just be parachuted in from the sky, or suddenly pop up out of the ground.
In this case we need to consider two aspects of the teachings: the ‘support’ and the ‘supported’. The ‘supports’ are the representations of the Three Jewels and the ‘supported’ are all the teachings of the nine yanas, which can also be categorized as the three yanas: Hinayana, Mahayana and Vajrayana.
The Hinayana is the essence or root of the teaching. Its vows of individual liberation have been transmitted in an uninterrupted lineage from the Buddha down to our own teachers today. Shariputra first received them from Buddha Shakyamuni in India, then they were transmitted from master to master until the abbot Shantarakshita took them to the Land of Snows. In Tibet the lineage of transmission remained unbroken from Ba Salnang down to Kyabjé Trulshik Rinpoche. And today, we still have accurate lists of the names of all the lineage masters who passed down the vows of individual liberation.
At Lerab Ling there is a monastic Sangha. All of Lerab Ling’s monks and nuns were ordained by Trulshik Rinpoche. One or two fully ordained monks aren’t enough to be described as a ‘monastic Sangha’, as there must be a minimum of four fully ordained monks to accomplish all the practices of the three basic rituals of the Vinaya, according to the traditional instructions. Therefore the presence of a monastic Sangha that upholds the vows of individual liberation—the basis for the teachings—are an extraordinary blessing. In fact, the Dharma Lord Patrul Rinpoche said, “There is more merit from upholding the victory banner of ‘saffron robes’…” meaning being reborn as a monk, “Than from being a great King with dominion over the three realms of existence for thousands of aeons.”
Taking the Hinayana as our basis, we also practise the Mahayana, the vehicle of the bodhisattvas. There are two approaches to taking the bodhisattva vow: the son of the Victorious One, Manjushri’s approach, which is the tradition of the ‘Profound View’; and the Bodhisattva Maitreya’s approach of ‘Vast Conduct’. Everyone here has at one time or another requested the bodhisattva vow from various lamas, who have granted them by following one of these two lineages and meditating on the two bodhichittas of application and action.
Should bodhichitta come to birth
In those who suffer, chained in prisons of samsara,
In that instant they are called the children of the Blissful One,
Revered by all the world, by gods and humankind.
This means that you must have accumulated an enormous amount of merit simply to be able to give birth to bodhichitta.
Both the Hinayana and Mahayana are the basis for the third vehicle, the Secret Mantra Vajrayana which takes the result as the path. The Vajrayana encompasses the four classes of Tantra which are the teachings of the Tantras, Agamas and Sadhanas. There are several accounts of the extraordinary way the Tantra and Sadhana teachings were first taught in this world which have been recorded in great detail and preserved to this day. You probably already know the history of these teachings. The important thing to realize, though, is that the transmission of the teachings from India to Tibet was accomplished perfectly and nothing was lost. In Tibet, Tantra was preserved faithfully. For example, the Guhyagarbha Tantra is still taught in the monasteries.
The other aspect of the Mahayoga is the Sadhana section, which, like cream, is the essence of the Tantra section, and contains the inconceivable and extraordinary practices of all eight Kagye deities, plus the practices related to each deity individually. At the heart of the Kagye lie the practices of the Three Roots. And so as everyone here has received the relevant empowerments, reading transmissions and pith instructions, the Three Roots practice we are doing now, in this drupchen, respects all the customary prerequisites of these teachings.
So, to my first point, which I mentioned at the beginning of my remarks yesterday and which is mentioned in the long life prayer I composed for Sogyal Rinpoche The Excellent Stream of Nectar of Immortality (‘chi med bdud rtsi rgyun bzang) a prayer Orgyen Tobgyal Rinpoche composed in 2003 at Lerab Ling., “And skilfully you make a rain of sacred Dharma fall…”. A ‘skilful’ person is able to use many different methods to shine the light of the Dharma in new lands, thereby spreading the teachings of the three yanas. But the process of giving the teachings somewhere new is never easy. Even when these teachings were first given in India, it didn’t happen easily. Teachings spread only when all the right causes and conditions come together and as a result of the most abundant merit. Likewise in the Land of Snows, the teachings were first introduced at the inception of the nation. First the king and his ministers received them, then the king’s subjects—meaning all the ordinary people. The Tibetans offered everything they had to the Indian teachers they invited, paying all their expenses in gold, and for more than a thousand years, preserved, protected and strengthened the teachings they were given. Taking all this into consideration, the fact that these teachings have only been taught outside Tibet for maybe twenty years, fifty at the most, and are now being heard in places where they were previously completely unknown, is quite miraculous!
Let me give you an example of why it isn’t easy for these teachings to become established somewhere new. All the Tantra teachings given in Akanishtha were compiled by five sublimely noble beings, hidden in space and sealed with the seven intentions. Only when the time, the place and the circumstances were all right, did the first fortunate recipients see the books containing these teachings descend from the sky. Which shows how difficult it is to bring together the circumstances that allow the Tantra section of the Mahayoga teachings to emerge.
As far as the other component of the Mahayoga teachings, the Sadhana section, is concerned, the teachings each teacher was destined to receive were sealed and hidden in the great Deché Tsekpa Stupa, and their safekeeping was entrusted to hundreds of thousands of dakinis. Then the eight great vidyadharas gathered with Guru Rinpoche in front of the stupa and with their own hands, the dakinis retrieved each sadhana of the Eight Kagye, plus the sadhana of Kadü Chokyi Gyatso which contains all eight.
Similarly, when the teachings spread in Tibet, the Tantra section appeared only when the great master Guru Rinpoche was invited to Tibet by the Dharma King Trison Deutsen, who had extended a passionate and heartfelt invitation accompanied by an immense offering of gold. The teachings of the Sadhana section weren’t transmitted by Guru Rinpoche until King Trison Deutsen accompanied his request with the offering of all his sovereign power, his kingdom and everything it contained. Then, as the empowerment was conferred upon the king, he actually saw the Kagye mandala of the Kadu Chökyi Gyatso.
Bear in mind that such immense offerings were made because the teachings are in fact priceless, not because Guru Rinpoche or the panditas needed wealth. By contrast, Dharma teachings tend land in the laps of most westerners these days—which may be a result of great merit, but could also be something else entirely. Generally it is said that those who live during the time of degeneration lack merit, but perhaps they actually have a great deal?
The authentic regents of the Lotus Guru of Oddiyana, the second Buddha, are lamas who embody all the qualities of knowledge and accomplishment. Some of them have come to your country, granted empowerments and instructions and given you everything you’ve asked for. You are extremely fortunate! The one who ‘creates the right conditions’ is the person who travels and tirelessly trains students in order to establish Dharma centres that can then welcome the lamas who have the ability to help other beings. Their kindness is monumental!
When Guru Rinpoche went to the Land of Snows, many panditas and yogis followed him and were present when the teachings were first given. It is said that, “During the time of Guru Rinpoche, five hundred great panditas led by Vimalamitra came to Tibet.” But at that time there were also many fake panditas, acharyas and sadhus, and some of them also made the journey from India, avid for Tibetan gold. Historical records from that time state that they gave many false teachings. The same thing is happening today.
How can we tell an authentic lama from a fake? We often hear how important discernment and wisdom are. If you lack discernment, you are just plain dumb and very easy to fool, right? So we must use our own discernment.
The Dharma is spreading throughout the West right now, so you really must write a chöjung. A chöjung is a book that explains the history of how the Dharma came to your country. So you must investigate minutely the circumstances surrounding the spread of Dharma to your country and make a very clear, detailed record. For example, who first came and transmitted the teachings of the vows of individual liberation? When did he come? What was his lineage? Such records should be kept for teachings of all three yanas, and particularly those in the Tantra and Sadhana sections, right up to the Clear Light Dzogpachenpo teachings. How were the teachings passed on? From which lineages? Who were the lineage holders who came and gave the teachings? Recording all this is crucial to ensure that future students can be sure that the teachings they receive are authentic.
Lerab Ling is a ‘Dharma seat’ (Tib. densa), and a succession of lineage holders—great beings who maintain the teaching—will stay here. And I am sure that for a few hundred years at least, Lerab Ling lineage holders will continue to maintain the teachings. Therefore, all the teachings that are given at this Dharma seat, and every aspect of the teaching process—how teachings were passed on and held—should be recorded fully and completely. If this doesn’t happen, you won’t be able to hold these teachings for long
The Dharma seats in Tibet, like Kathok, Palyul and Orgyen Mindroling, all have denrab—texts that record the succession of abbots and great beings who have cared for their Dharma seats. The teachings of the Buddha that were transmitted in Tibet, were collected in the Kangyur, the Translation of the Words of the Buddha. Even the very short sutras mention the circumstances in which the Buddha gave that particular teaching. This is how we can account for each lineage holder from the Buddha onwards. And this is what you should do for Lerab Ling.
To clarify this point a little further. Today for Tibetans in Tibet, the teachings have begun to wane, while in the West the teachings have just started to appear and spread. But in India the teachings have virtually disappeared. The Buddha himself told us that his teachings would eventually decline everywhere. So the teachings only spread in the right circumstances, which is why you should write an historical account of how they spread here. My main point, therefore, is that it is crucial for a ‘Dharma seat’ to keep accurate records.
The History of Dzogpachenpo
There is something I have wanted to say for many years at this great Dharma seat of Lerab Ling, so I shall say it now.
Here at Lerab Ling, the name given to the Sangha is ‘Rigpa’, and Rigpa is the heart of Dzogchen. From Lerab Ling, numerous Rigpa centres have been established throughout the world and what they all practise, what they focus their minds on, is Dzogpachenpo. Now, there are people these days who say that Dzopachenpo has no lineage and even some Tibetan lamas don't know how to explain the teachings properly. They say that the Dzogchen teachings appeared spontaneously, ‘naturally’, like some sort of intellectual theory. These people are making a very, very grave mistake.
In India, the land of the Aryas, the teachings of Dzogpachenpo were held in many lineages. In the same way the Dzogchen teachings radiate from Lerab Ling to the Rigpa centres worldwide, the teachings of Dzogpachenpo first appeared in this world on the Blazing Meteoritic Mount Malaya, in present-day Sri Lanka. They then spread to the ‘central lands’ of Zahor, Oddiyana and India. At that time, Dzogpachenpo was an extremely secret Dharma and kept strictly confidential—which is why there aren’t many accounts of the circumstances surrounding each teaching event. And it is because the teachings were kept so secret that today their history is not clear. Details about where the teachings spread, the beings associated with them, the kings, accomplished practitioners and so on, were not written down. However, what is clear is that the teachings were taken to Bodhgaya and Varanasi.
The various histories of Dharma record that in Lanka, Glorious Vajrasattva went to the top of the Blazing Meteoritic Mount Malaya and taught five sublimely noble beings the six million four hundred thousand sections of the teachings—you’ve heard this, right? For a long time everybody thought that the Blazing Meteoritic Mount of Malaya was probably somewhere in India, and left it at that. Recently, though, it’s been discovered that Mount Malaya is in Sri Lanka, and this detail has made much more sense of everything we learned from history.
Another example is that the motherland of the great master Garab Dorje is Oddiyana and that he was the son of a king. Tibetans always thought Oddiyana was somewhere in India, but no one could identify its exact location.
Texts about the lives of Shri Singha and the masters that came after him were written more than a millenia ago. Those that still exist tell us things like where the lamas were born, and so on, and by carefully examining the various scraps of information we find in these texts, we can discover quite a lot about what happened then.
The Chronicles of the Chinese Imperial House of Tang report that in Srinagar, Kashmir, at the ‘Mound of the Elephants,’ Tib. Glang po’i sgang, Skt. Hastithala, which according to Dorje and Kapstein (Vol.2, p.462) ‘probably to be identified with Hastināpura in modern Himachal Pradesh.’ Also known as Hastivana (glong po’i tshal) The Forest of the Elephants. there was a monastery and that someone called Vimalamitra was probably born nearby. It’s very likely that this was the famous master Vimalamitra who went to India, Tibet and China and gave many teachings about the approach based on adopting what is good, rejecting what is bad and going beyond cause and effect. The Chronicles tell us that as he gave these teachings, the earth cracked open and he fell into the lowest realm. The authors of the Chronicles had no appreciation of the teachings of Dzogpachenpo and some details are not true, but overall they corroborate the Buddhist accounts, because the Dzogchen teachings also mention that Vimalamitra was born in Srinagar, Kashmir, at the ‘Mound of the Elephants’. The difference is that our accounts say Vimalamitra never abandoned his body and that he continues to live on the Manjushri peaks of the Wu Taï Shan Mountains in China.
It is said that when Xuanzang went to Oddiyana, the people there were able to display signs of accomplishment and all sort of miraculous powers, like flying in the sky. But he distorted his account by adding that he thought they were just performing magical tricks and illusions, whereas the accounts in our Secret Mantra teachings say that in Oddiyana pretty much everyone was a Mahasiddha.
All of which proves that the history of the Dzogchen teachings stands up to scrutiny, the lineage is authentic, and how and where the teachings originated can be clearly traced.
We need to bear in mind that when the Dzogchen teachings were transmitted in the Land of Snows, there were three lineages. The first was the lineage of Guru Rinpoche, the second was the lineage of Vimalamitra, and the third was the lineage of Vairotsana. Guru Rinpoche was an Oddiyana man and Vimalamitra was a Kashmiri, so their lineages came to Tibet from India. In one of the Kathang texts about the life of Guru Rinpoche it says,
Invited from Oddiyana, Lotus-born,
Invited from Kashmir, Vimalamitra…
Invited from Zahor, Shantarakshita,
Shantarakshita was the ‘Zahor abbot’, right? At that time Zahor and India were different countries. Even though these are very short statements, they help us understand what happened.
So Guru Rinpoche and Vimalamitra both went to Tibet from India, and Vairotsana, who transmitted the third lineage, went to India from Tibet, where he met Garab Dorje and Shri Singha. Vairotsana saw Shri Singha’s wisdom body and received from him the transmissions of the entire six million four hundred thousand tantras of Dzogchen, including the three sections of Dzogpachenpo—Semdé, Longdé and the four cycles of Mengakdé. And all these teachings also reached Tibet. These three lineages were the only methods by which the Dzogchen teachings appeared in Tibet, which means the teachings of the Dzogpachenpo were not invented in Tibet.
According to a well-known calculation, Guru Rinpoche spent one hundred and twenty years in Tibet Dudjom Rinpoche, History, p.516-517 and p.473-474. Mention all the options from 18 moths to 3600 years, explaining how they do not contradict each other., but according to Jonang Jetsun Taranatha these ‘years’ were calculated using the Indian method by which six months were counted as one year.
For a long time after he first arrived, Guru Rinpoche did not even say the word ‘Dzogpachenpo’ in public. He did not teach Dzogchen at all. So King Trison Deutsen sent messengers to Mount Kailash to invite Buddhaguhya to teach in Tibet. But Buddhaguhya sent the King a gift—the Stages of the Path, which is a commentary on the Guhyagarbha Tantra that he had written—with the reply, “I am practising on Mount Kailash and will not be going to Samyé. However in our country, the Land of the Noble Ones, there is no Mahasiddha greater than Guru Rinpoche, Padmasambhava. He has received empowerment into the dynamic energy of rigpa (rigpa tsal wang) and has gained complete mastery over all appearance and existence, samsara and nirvana. Basically, he has fully mastered Dzogchen. And as he is already with you in Tibet, there is no reason for me to come.”
That’s the story behind King Trison Deutsen famously saying that Buddhaguhya told him Guru Rinpoche had gained complete mastery over all appearance and existence, samsara and nirvana.
During the great Horse Year Losar celebration, which also honoured the King’s forty-ninth year, an elaborate ceremony was organized and a great assembly of panditas and masters gathered, that was presided over by Guru Rinpoche. The King offered many prostrations, then said, “Today is the beginning of a crucial year for Tibet. Buddhaguhya says that you are a master of the Clear Light Dzogpachenpo teachings and that your mind holds dominion over all that appears and exists in the whole of samsara and nirvana, so you must have teachings to give us. Please, grant us these teachings, here in Tibet, on this very special occasion of Losar.”
The king spoke on behalf of all Guru Rinpoche’s students, ‘the king and the subjects’ and begged Guru Rinpoche to grant all the Dzogchen teachings. “If you cannot,” he said, “At least give us the essential instructions. If you can’t even do that, Buddhaguhya told us that you have received ‘empowerment into the dynamic energy of rigpa’, so such an empowerment must exist. Please grant it to us.”
In front of the whole assembly, the king also asked Guru Rinpoche the name of his own Dzogchen teacher, but Guru Rinpoche left as soon as the celebrations were over, without replying. Some time later, King Trison Deutsen happened upon Guru Rinpoche, Vimalamitra and a few lotsawas as they were translating teachings in the Translation Garden at Samyé, and once again asked Guru Rinpoche about the identity of his Dzogchen teacher. Vimalamitra heard the request but said nothing, thinking, “It's up to Guru Rinpoche to answer that one.” But Guru Rinpoche didn’t answer the king, immediately stopped what he was doing, and left. Throughout all this time, Yeshe Tsogyal was continually asking Guru Rinpoche many questions and employing all manner of skilful means to try to discover the identity of his teacher, but Guru Rinpoche refused even to drop a hint.
Three years passed. The Sheep Year followed the Horse Year, and then came the Monkey Year. In the Monkey Month of the Monkey Year, at Butsar Sekar Ling, which is a shrine outside Samyé, Guru Rinpoche rose early on the morning of the tenth day and was on the point of leaving when Yeshe Tsogyal and the others asked him where he was going.
“Everyone in Tibet, from King Trison Deutsen and his court down to the most ordinary citizen, is desperate to discover the name of my root teacher,” he said. “You’d think they were all dying of thirst! So now I will reveal it. Follow me.”
Guru Rinpoche walked out and everyone scurried after him excitedly. He led them to Samye Chimphu, stood before the door of Drakmar Keutsang, and said: “You want to know the name of my root teacher, right?” There was a breathless silence. “My root teacher is the glorious Heruka, Fearless Shri Singha!” And as he spoke, he pressed his palms together above the top of his head. The sky filled with sugatas, and they and all the humans and non-humans that filled the land, and even the mountains, rocks and trees of the Land of Snows and Samye Chimpu, bowed towards India, in homage to Shri Singha. That was the first time he mentioned the name of his master. As the Tibetans had insisted on knowing his master’s name and had so persistently requested that single teaching, Guru Rinpoche gave it to them. But throughout his time in Tibet, Guru Rinpoche revealed only a few points of Dzogchen. He never revealed the teachings in their entirety.
This account of how the Dzogchen teachings were transmitted by Guru Rinpoche, which began when he told the Tibetans the name of his teacher, was written by Yeshe Tsogyal in the Essential Tikka, which is part of the Three Section of Dzogpachenpo terma cycle.
After that—and I’ll be brief—Guru Rinpoche taught nine-year old Princess Pema Sal, having summoned her consciousness back into her dead body. Noone else was present. Next, at Tsedu Tsokkhang, he gave the teachings to Yeshe Tsogyal and hundreds of thousands of dakinis, and so Yeshe Tsogyal was the only human to receive them. He then gave the ‘Direct Pointing-out Instructions to an Old Man’ and the ‘Direct Pointing-out Instruction to an Old Lady’, which were short instructions he gave to those who he said had greater devotion than king Trisong Detsen. And the teaching he gave everyone in Tibet was the Garland of Views.
All these teachings—both Kama and Terma—are the Dzogchen teachings of the lineage of Guru Rinpoche. For the sake of future practitioners, the twenty-five disciples individually received specific Dzogchen teachings, which then appeared later as termas. This is what constitutes the terma lineage of Dzogpachenpo.
The lineage of Vimalamitra is the well-known lineage of transmission given by Vimalamitra to Nyang Tingdzin Zangpo. These teachings were transmitted from one master to the next and form the Vima Nyingtik lineage.
The teachings of the Vairotsana lineage are divided into two, the Kama and the Terma.
The Kama lineage is made up of the teachings Vairotsana gave Pang Mipham Gönpo, which were then transmitted through seven generations of the Pang Family and have been preserved in the Damngak Dzö. After King Trison Deutsen passed away, Guru Rinpoche, Vairotsana and Yeshe Tsogyal, and many others, went to Kham in Derge, to visit Pema Shelpuk (the Lotus Crystal Cave) at Rongme Karmo Taktsang (the White Tigress’ Lair) behind Dzongsar. Vairotsana stayed in the lower cave, Yeshe Tsogyal in a small cave called the Secret Cave, and Guru Rinpoche in the upper cave. Guru Rinpoche and Vairotsana talked every day and sometimes Yeshe Tsogyal would eavesdrop.
The teachings of Dzogpachenpo contain three cycles: Semdé, the ‘mind section’, Longdé, the ‘space section’, and Mengakdé, the ‘pith instructions’. Semdé is the heart, Longdé is the lifeblood, and Mengakdé is the very essence of the blood that flows through the heart. These are the three great cycles of Dzogchen teachings. Shri Singha didn’t authorize Guru Rinpoche to teach them, but he did authorize Vairotsana to transmit them if he ever met anyone able to receive them. This is why, for the sake of future generations, Guru Rinpoche and Vairotsana wrote the teachings down on yellow scrolls, and consulted each other continuously to verify what Shri Singha had taught them. To resolve any tiny discrepancies, Guru Rinpoche directed his mind towards the Bhasing charnel ground in India and Shri Singha appeared in his cave as if from the sky. Guru Rinpoche invited Vairotsana to join them and for three days the three great masters talked—these days we’d call it ‘having a meeting’. But only Yeshe Tsogyal witnessed any of it, and then for just a very few moments.
Finally, the teachings were written on yellow scrolls and hidden in the supreme Lotus Crystal Cave of Pema Shelpuk, to be revealed later by Jamyang Khyentse Wangpo and Chogyur Dechen Lingpa. The treasure is called Dzogchen Dé Sum—Three Sections of Dzogpachenpo—and contains Semdé, Longdé and Mengakdé. Each section presents Lama, Yidam and Dakini sadhanas and all the related empowerments and instructions.
Even though Guru Rinpoche and Vairotsana revealed these teachings together, they are said to belong more to the tradition of Vairotsana, because it was Vairotsana whom Shri Singha had authorized to transmit them. The terma was written in Yeshe Tsogyal’s own hand, and the catalogue was composed by Vairotsana. The lineage remains uninterrupted to this day, and these teachings are still very much alive, with many students continuing to listen to, reflect upon and practise them.
Until the time of the Great Omniscient One, Longchenpa, Semdé, Longdé and Mengakdé were generally taught separately. Then after the Great Omniscient One, the three lineages were brought together, but since then, it’s mainly the Mengakdé teachings that have been taught.
If you are interested in Dzogchen it is important to understand its history and to know where the teachings came from. Nowadays there are far too many so-called ‘Dzogchen teachings’ being taught, the history of which has become rather murky. However, as Lerab Ling is a Dzogchen centre, I decided I should tell you something about the history of the Dzogchen teachings while I was here, at this place. However, I’ve only been able to mention the main points very briefly and I’m not really satisfied. But you all need to know the history of the Dzogchen teachings and must maintain the tradition as purely as possible.
As you know, I don't know anything about Dzogchen, but I do know its history extremely well, and that’s why I can talk about it. Why do I say that I don't know Dzogchen? Because when I try to pass my hand through this microphone, I can't; if I knew Dzogchen, my hand would pass right through.
So that’s it for today.
Translated by Gyurmé Avertin
Edited by Janine Schulz